﻿ UGC NET Syllabus

# UNIT 1

Analysis

Elementary set theory, finite, countable and uncountable sets. Real number system as a complete ordered field. Archimedean property, supremum, infimum. Sequences and series of real numbers and their convergence. limsup, liminf. Bolzano Weierstrass theorem, Heine Borel theorem. Continuity, uniform continuity, differentiability, mean value theorem. Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence. Riemann sums and Riemann integral, Improper Integrals. Monotonic functions, types of discontinuity, functions of bounded variation, Lebesgue measure, Lebesgue integral. Functions of several variables, directional derivative, partial derivative, derivative as a linear transformation, inverse and implicit function theorems. Metric spaces, compactness, connectedness. Normed linear Spaces. Spaces of continuous functions as examples.

Principle of Mathematical Analysis -S.L.Gupta,N.R.Gupta(Pearson Publication).
S.L.Gupta, N.R. Gupta
(Pearson Publication)
Real Analysis -
Robert G Bartle
(Wiley Publication)
Real Analysis -
M.D. Raisinghania
(S. Chand Publication)

Linear Algebra

Vector spaces, subspaces, linear dependence, basis, dimension, algebra of linear transformations. Algebra of matrices, rank and determinant of matrices, linear equations. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Matrix representation of linear transformations. Change of basis, canonical forms, diagonal forms, triangular forms, Jordan forms. Inner product spaces, orthonormal basis. Quadratic forms, reduction and classification of quadratic forms.

Linear Algebra Schaum's Series -
(Tata McGraw-Hill Publication)
Linear Algebra -
Kenneth M Hoffman, Ray Kunze
(PHI Publication)
Linear Algebra -
Vivek Sahai, Vikas Bist
(Narosa Publication)

# UNIT – 2

Complex Analysis

Algebra of complex numbers, the complex plane, polynomials, power series, transcendental functions such as exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations. Contour integral, Cauchy's theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville's theorem, Maximum modulus principle, Schwarz lemma, Open mapping theorem. Taylor series, Laurent series, calculus of residues. Conformal mappings, Mobius transformations.

Complex Variables -
H.S. Kasana
(PHI Publication )
Complex Analysis -
S Ponnusamy
(Narosa Publication)
Complex Analysis -
R.V. Churchill
(Tata McGraw - Hill Publication)

Algebra

Permutations,combinations,pigeon-hole principle,inclusion-exclusion principle,derangements.Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, divisibility in Z, congruences, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Euler's Ø- function, primitive roots. Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, cyclic groups, permutation groups, Cayley's theorem, class equations, Sylow theorems. Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization domain, principal ideal domain, Euclidean domain. Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria. Fields, finite fields, field extensions, Galois Theory.

Contemporary Abstract Algebra -
Joseph A. Gallian
(Narosa Publication)
Modren Algebra -
Surjeet Singh and Qazi Zameeruddin
(Vikas Publication)
Abstract Algebra -
David S. Dummit, Richard M. Foote
( Wiley Publication)

Topology

Basis, Dense sets, subspace and product topology, separation axioms, connectedness and compactness.

Topology -
K. D. Joshi
(New Age International Publication)

# UNIT – 3

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE)

Existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value problems for first order ordinary differential equations, singular solutions of first order ODE , system of first order ODE. General theory of homogenous and non-homogeneous linear ODEs, variation of parameters, Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem, Green's function.

Ordinary Differential Equations -
MD Rai Singhania
( S.Chand Publication )
Differential Equations -
Shepley L. Ross
(Wiley Publication )
Differential Equations -
Earl Codington
(PHI Publication )

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (PDE)

Lagrange and Charpit methods for solving first order PDE, Cauchy problem for first order PDE. Classification of second order PDE, General solution of higher order PDE with constant coefficients, Method of separation of variables for Laplace, Heat and Wave equations.

Partial Differential Equations -
T. Amaranath
(Narosa Publication )
Introduction To Partial Differential Equations -
K. Sankara Rao
(PHI Publication )

Numerical Analysis

Numerical solutions of algebraic equations, Method of iteration and Newton-Raphson method, Rate of convergence, Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations using Gauss elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods, Finite differences, Lagrange, Hermite and spline interpolation, Numerical differentiation and integration, Numerical solutions of ODEs using Picard, Euler, modified Euler and Runge-Kutta methods.

Numerical Analysis -
R.K. Jain, ‎S.R.K. Iyengar
(New Age Publication )

Calculus of Variations

Variation of a functional, Euler-Lagrange equation, Necessary and sufficient conditions for extrema. Variational methods for boundary value problems in ordinary and partial differential equations.

Calculus of Variations -
A. S. GUPTA
(Narosa Publication )

Linear Integral Equations

Linear integral equation of the first and second kind of Fredholm and Volterra type, Solutions with separable kernels. Characteristic numbers and eigenfunctions, resolvent kernel.

Linear Integral Equations -
M D Raisinghania
(S.Chand Publication )

Classical Mechanics

Generalized coordinates, Lagrange's equations, Hamilton's canonical equations, Hamilton's principle and principle of least action, Two-dimensional motion of rigid bodies, Euler's dynamical equations for the motion of a rigid body about an axis, theory of small oscillations.

Classical Mechanics -
(Himalaya Publication)

# UNIT – 4

Descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis

Sample space, discrete probability, independent events, Bayes theorem. Random variables and distribution functions (univariate and multivariate); expectation and moments. Independent random variables, marginal and conditional distributions. Characteristic functions. Probability inequalities (Tchebyshef, Markov, Jensen). Modes of convergence, weak and strong laws of large numbers, Central Limit theorems (i.i.d. case). Markov chains with finite and countable state space, classification of states, limiting behaviour of n-step transition probabilities, stationary distribution, Poisson and birth-and-death processes. Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions. sampling distributions, standard errors and asymptotic distributions, distribution of order statistics and range.

Methods of estimation, properties of estimators, confidence intervals. Tests of hypotheses: most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests, likelihood ratio tests. Analysis of discrete data and chi-square test of goodness of fit. Large sample tests.Simple nonparametric tests for one and two sample problems, rank correlation and test for independence. Elementary Bayesian inference. Gauss-Markov models, estimability of parameters, best linear unbiased estimators, confidence intervals, tests for linear hypotheses. Analysis of variance and covariance. Fixed, random and mixed effects models.

Simple and multiple linear regression. Elementary regression diagnostics. Logistic regression. Multivariate normal distribution, Wishart distribution and their properties. Distribution of quadratic

forms. Inference for parameters, partial and multiple correlation coefficients and related tests data

reduction techniques: Principle component analysis, Discriminant analysis, Cluster analysis, Canonical correlation.

Simple random sampling, stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Probability proportional to size sampling. Ratio and regression methods. Completely randomized designs,randomized block designs and Latin-square designs. Connectedness and orthogonality of block designs, BIBD. 2K factorial experiments: confounding and construction. Hazard function and failure rates, censoring and life testing, series and parallel systems.

Probablity and statistics -
S. C. Gupta and V. K. Kapoor
(S.Chand Publication)

Linear programming problem And Operations Research

Simplex methods, duality. Elementary queuing and inventory models. Steady-state solutions of Markovian queuing models: M/M/1, M/M/1 with limited waiting space, M/M/C, M/M/C with limited waiting space, M/G/1.

Operations Research -
Prem Kumar Gupta, D. S. Hira
(S.Chand Publication )